The Education Sector Analysis (2012-2016) observed that the Higher Education (HE) sector is relatively new in Somaliland. As a result, data on university education in Somaliland is extremely limited due to lack of regulation of institutions and insufficient Ministry involvement. In the recent decade the growth of tertiary education has been significant. From the core of established universities ranging back to the 1990’s such as Amoud, Hargeisa, Gollis and Burao University an impressive growth has emerged to 35 recognised universities in the country 53 . Very similar to the private largely unregulated economic sector the rapid growth of the HE sector has followed initiatives, mostly privately driven, be it as possible business ventures, or more often from philanthropic motives, often in the form of joint ventures. This is a reason for the diversity of university programmes and status (public / private), and it is clear that the majority of the usually much smaller universities are still private initiatives.
Almost all universities were founded by diaspora and local communities but are now considered public institutions under the authority of the Somaliland government.
The remaining under 20 autonomous universities founded by NGOs or private entities are generally self-financing through student fees. The Universities receive limited support from external donors, which include the Somali diaspora, the Developing Partners, including United Nations Agencies, and local major stakeholders. Overall participation has grown significantly and the latest annual enrolment stands at approximately 13,000 students.