Technical and Vocational Education and Training
Although high in demand, the TVET Department at the Ministry of Education continues to suffer from lack of organization, access and a disjuncture between private and public vocational services. Reliable data is still a problem as the TVET subsector was included in the EMIS census only since 2015. Currently the TVET department offers formal public secondary school services in the Technical schools in Hargeisa, Burao and one technical Agricultural school on the outskirts of Burao. However, the majority of TVET institutions are privately owned and administered independently from the MOEHS. These schools are project-based and their longevity depends on the lifespan of donor funding for projects. Therefore, sustainability is a major challenge in the TVET private sector. There are many challenges hindering this subsector as noted below.
Fragmentation and Data Availability
TVET programming in Somaliland is currently fragmented due to the manner in which these programmes are implemented. With the assistance of Development and Implementing Partners a wide spectrum of initiatives and activities have been implemented over the years but there is a lack of formalized documentation to assess initiatives and results in this subsector.
Lack of Management Capacity
TVET has remained an under-funded subsector and the near-total absence of subsector-wide monitoring by the MOEHS suggests a fundamental management inefficiency and lack of capacity. However, a department for TVET was created in the compound of the MOEHS with a fully functional equipped building but clear guidelines on reporting and job profiles are yet to be developed and applied.
Weak Policy Implementation
As documented in the ESA a number of far reaching initiatives were proposed in the outgoing ESSP 2012-2016, with the potential to create enabling conditions for developing a concise, structured TVET subsector, including:
The 2011 National Vocational Qualifications Framework (VQF), was developed and has not been reviewed. In addition, a draft TVQA Bill was developed but not finalized. Therefore, the TVQA need to be revised to address the ambiguities in the roles and responsibilities between the TVET Department and TVQA Authority. Furthermore, VQF should be revised so that it will be line with the TVET Strategy, current labour market demand and the ESSP 2017-2021.
Standardization of all qualifications and credentials is an important element in a structured, consistent education system. This would gradually address the current problem of questionable qualifications (diplomas and degrees) thus creating a national, binding system of qualifications for all education and training providers;
- A comprehensive revision of curricula towards output/ learning outcome-based, or results-based, with defined levels (modular structure) and linked to NQF, skills and knowledge competencies;
- Specification of occupations or trades (with recognized qualification profiles), ensuring national and regional recognition (gazetting, standards);
- Concepts and plans to implement the training of instructors/ TVET teachers, albeit without full consideration of heads as managers of TVET institutions/ colleges.
- However, it is noted that their transformation into binding norms is yet to be effected as none of these initiatives were fully realized.